Tami Simon: You’re listening to Insights at the Edge. Today my guest is Dr. Gary Small. Dr. Small is the director of the UCLA memory and aging research center. For his work in the prevention of Alzheimer’s disease and brain aging, Scientific American magazine named him one of the world’s top 50 innovators in science and technology. He’s written six books, including the New York Times bestseller The Memory Bible. With Sounds True, Dr. Small has created several audio programs, including Improve Your Memory Now, proven techniques to maximize your brain power immediately, where he offers tools to boost brain power, including nutrition advice, mental aerobics and a powerful technique for remembering names, faces, and anything else better.
In this episode of Insights at the Edge, Gary and I spoke about what factors are in our control when it comes to preventing memory loss, and even preventing the onset of Alzheimer’s. We also talked about the importance of weight loss, good sleep, and diet when it comes to keeping our brain healthy. Dr. Small also shared with us his own motivation for focusing on the field of memory and aging. And finally, we explored some of the latest research related to the prevention of Alzheimer’s disease. Here’s my conversation with Dr. Gary Small.
Dr. Small, it seems to me that one of the key premises of your work on the aging brain is the idea that memory loss is not an inevitable consequence of aging. And, you know, I think of old people, I could say that too, and they’d say, “Huh? What are you talking about? What do you mean it’s not an inevitable consequence? It sure seemed inevitable for me.”
Gary Small: It depends on how you define memory loss. Of course, we see, we can measure changes by the time people turn age 45 and sometimes even earlier. And I think that comment really points to the observation that people do have more control than they think as far as preserving their memory.
Our research at UCLA and a lot of the books and audio tapes and DVDs that I’ve done talk about ways we can improve our memory, how we can compensate for some of these mild age-related changes, and ways that we can strengthen our physiology, the brain cells themselves, and keep them strong and healthy through lifestyle behaviors.
TS: OK, so just to make sure I’m understanding what you’re saying here. Are you saying that we don’t have to lose as much of our mental capacities as perhaps we fear, but that some loss is inevitable?
GS: I think some loss is inevitable. People do have changes in their memory ability. But the degree of the loss is under our control, to some extent.
TS: OK. So what amount of memory loss would you say is inevitable, just goes with the human organism, even if I eat right, exercise, meditate, do my crossword puzzles and everything? What level of memory loss is just—I’d like to know. I’d like to just eat the reality sandwich, right now, here in mid-life.
GS: [Laughs] It’s clear that our short-term memory declines as we age. And so we can remember what we did in high school on a particular day, or [the] first steps of our first-born child. But we might have a little trouble recalling the name of that actress in the movie we saw last week.
So the kinds of short-term memory complaints people generally have include names and faces: you meet somebody, you might remember their face, but you can’t remember their name. It’s very common for us to forget where we placed things. We often have this tip-of-the-tongue experience, where we think we should know that word or that name, but it doesn’t come to us right away. And finally, we have problems with remembering to remember. So you run out of the house and you forget your cell phone or you forget an appointment that day.
TS: So do you think it’s reasonable that somebody could have the perspective, “As I age, some of my short-term memory won’t be there, it will weaken, but I can be OK with that. I can relax with that. It’s really not a big deal. No big loss.”
GS: It’s not a big deal, but also, it can be improved. We found, when we teach people our memory exercises, that they have relatively immediate improvement in memory performance. And long-term studies show that you can improve your memory performance over many years. You can see a sustained improvement.
TS: OK, so what would be the most important ways, if I were working here on short-term memory, that I could improve it?
GS: Learning basic memory techniques, like Look, Snap, Connect. So remember to focus your attention; the biggest reason people don’t remember is they’re simply not paying attention. That’s Look. Snap is a reminder to create mental snapshots. Our brains are hardwired to remember visually. And then finally, Connect is a way of linking up those mental snapshots so they have meaning. If something is meaningful, it’s going to be more memorable.
TS: Now, of course, there are so many possible things that I could remember at any given time. I mean, you gave the example of remembering that actress in a movie. I use this Look, Snap, Connect technique obviously pretty carefully, with discernment. I mean, how many things am I going to be trying to remember at any given time?
GS: Well, you have to pick and choose what’s important to you. I mean, if we remembered everything, we’d be overwhelmed. And life itself is a matter of determining or differentiating signal from noise. We do it in science; we do it in everyday life. So if you come to me, if you came to my office and you complained, “Gee, Doc, I just changed jobs, and I’m having trouble remembering names and faces,” well, that would be a good task for you to focus on using Look, Snap, Connect for names and faces.
TS: OK, so let’s just use that as an example, because I want to make sure that I really get it and that the Sounds True listeners really get it as well. So I’m in a new job, and Look, well, that seems pretty fairly obviously, I really pay attention to the name and the face. But then Snap—help me understand that next step.
GS: Well, what you do, you’d create a name snap and a face snap. So you’d look at the person’s face, and you’d look for distinguishing features. So maybe you meet Chelsea, and you look at her, and she has a Cheshire Cat smile, or prominent cheeks, and that would help you remember Chelsea. So it doesn’t have to be an exact match, but just something visual that’s characteristic of that person that links the face to the name.
TS: So that’s the Snap part and the Connect part?
TS: I got you. So the Snap is that I’m really taking—
GS: Creating a mental snapshot.
TS: I got you. Having the visual right there. And why is it important to focus on the visual part of memory?
GS: Well, particularly for names and faces, it’s important, because you want to remember the face. But generally, people will remember an image. A picture’s worth a thousand words. Now that’s not universal. There are some people who would tell you they have terrible visual memory and it’s much easier for them to come up with a jingle, a musical lyric or something like that to help their memory. For the average person, though, the visual snapshots are very compelling in fixing information into their memory stores.
TS: Now, Dr. Small, it feels to me that this fear that we have in our culture—of losing our memory, losing our minds, the prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease—that this fear a really big concern that so many people have in thinking about their own aging process. And I’m wondering, how do you work with people just at that, on the fear level?
GS: Well, the best way to deal with fear is to help people with the real information. So somebody may have a family history of Alzheimer’s disease, and they come in and they’re misplacing things, and having trouble with people’s names, and having trouble with appointments. And you find out that that family history was a grandmother who got Alzheimer’s disease in her 80s, and this particular person is in her 40s. If there’s a genetic risk in that family, it would tend to be a similar age at onset. So educating this individual that these normal, middle-age memory challenges are not the same thing as what her grandmother got will help with that fear in that situation.
Other times it has to do with understanding what people can actually do to protect their memory and their brain health. Even if they do have a genetic risk for Alzheimer’s, there’s some remarkable evidence that we do have more control than we think. Even people with a genetic risk for Alzheimer’s—a recent study found that if they do more physical exercise, they would have less of the Alzheimer’s amyloid plaque in the brain.
TS: And can you help me understand what the mechanism might be for that? How much physical exercise would be a good preventative for Alzheimer’s?
GS: Whenever you’re doing anything that gets your heart to pump more nutrients and oxygen to your brain, that’s going to help your brain circulation, it’s going to help the brain cells. It turns out that our bodies also secrete something called “brain-derived neurotrophic factor,” BDNF, which helps our brain cells sprout branches and communicate more effectively. So there’s a lot of physiological things going on, not just throughout your body, but also throughout your brain when you get regular cardiovascular conditioning.
TS: So in addition to cardiovascular exercise, if I do have this fear of Alzheimer’s, whether there’s a genetic predisposition in my family or not—I’m just afraid of this thing—what else are the biggest recommendations that you would make for people?
GS: In addition to getting regular physical exercise, certainly if you’re having fear and anxiety, stress management is critically important. We know that in animals, chronic stress can actually shrink the memory centers of the brain. People who are prone to stress have a two-fold increase risk for getting Alzheimer’s disease, and if you take a stress hormone like cortizol and inject it into a human volunteer, that will temporarily impair that person’s learning and recall. So try to help people to manage their stress better, to do yoga, meditation, breathing exercises, whatever helps them feel less stress and anxiety will help their memory and probably their brain health.
TS: OK, so both of those factors seem really important and really clear to me, the cardiovascular exercise and the stress management. Now, what about diet? Are there factors in my diet that affect my memory?
GS: The first thing about diet is not eating too much. We’ve got an epidemic of overweight and obesity, not just in the US, but around the world. And if you’re overweight, that doubles your risk for Alzheimer’s. If you’re obese, it quadruples your risk. That’s the bad news. The good news is if you lose weight, it actually helps your memory. So the brain is relatively resilient and you can reverse some of these negative processes that are going on as a result of diet and [being] overweight.
Now, the issue about overweight is not just the general fat throughout the body, but especially the fat around the abdomen, what we call “central obesity,” because it’s a very active fat tissue or adipose tissue. It actually creates a generalized inflammatory reaction throughout the body and the brain. And many of us in Alzheimer’s research think that a big problem with brain health and risks for Alzheimer’s is not just a build-up of plaques and tangles in the brain, but also an inflammatory response that attacks our brain cells. And many of the strategies that I recommend—Alzheimer’s prevention strategies, like getting a good night’s sleep, eating Omega-3 fats from fish or nuts, or losing weight—are anti-inflammatory strategies.
TS: I’m curious, just about you personally for a moment Dr. Small, which is why this whole area of longevity studies and helping support healthy memory, why this has been your area of specialization, why you chose this?
GS: I think, by nature, I tend to see the cup half full rather than half empty. And so when I got into geriatrics, what many people thought is, “Oh, that’s kind of a negative area to go into. You deal with all these old, declining individuals.” I wanted to kind of take that positive approach to the geriatric field. And in studying Alzheimer’s disease, I realized there was an opportunity there, because Alzheimer’s disease is something that has a very gradual onset.
I mean, we’re talking today about mild memory complaints and worry about Alzheimer’s disease. And there’s a very gradual process in the brain where these plaques and tangles build up, where the memory decline gets worse. And that means there’s an opportunity; if we can identify people with the mild problems early, and intervene early, we have a chance of protecting a healthy brain rather than try to repair the damage once it sets in. And many of us think that that’s a very feasible strategy.
TS: Now, can you help me understand this idea of plaques and tangles in the brain? I thought plaque was something on my teeth.
GS: Well, I just went to the dentist, and I had some plaque on my teeth. There’s different kinds of plaque that we talk about. The plaques and tangles I’m talking about with Alzheimer’s disease are tiny little protein deposits that are abnormal, that are sticky, and seem to muck up the brain cells and cause problems in thinking and memory.
And they collect in these memory centers of the brain. They have a very gradual build-up, and we’re learning more and more about them. For example, a recent study found that the tangles seemed to spread from cell to cell, which is quite interesting because that offers us maybe a way to intervene, if we could figure out how this process spreads throughout the brain.
TS: But you’re saying right now, our understanding is that plaques and tangles can’t be reversed, but perhaps they could be prevented from getting worse? Is that correct?
GS: Well, we don’t know that. It’s possible they can be reversed, but I think a more feasible strategy is to try to prevent the build-up. And in fact, the kinds of studies we’re doing at UCLA right now use that strategy. We have one study where we’re taking circumin, which is in curry and turmeric. In India, it’s interesting that there’s a lower rate of Alzheimer’s disease then there is in the United States, but more importantly, when we take the circumin in the laboratory, we find that it attacks the amyloid plaques and it’s also anti-inflammatory.
So the study we’re doing right now with circumin, we’re giving it to people who don’t have Alzheimer’s disease, but might be at risk for it, and seeing whether there’s prevention of the build-up of the plaque in the brain, and also a preservation of memory ability in these people, compared to taking a placebo.
TS: Now, if I came to you and reported that I was concerned about memory loss or thought that maybe I might have signs of Alzheimer’s disease, would you be able to see if I had plaque and tangles in my brain? Can you see that kind of thing?
GS: We would. I mean, you can do these scans now—one of the scans that was developed at the University of Pennsylvania was recently approved by the FDA for use. You can get these scans commercially, and you can see how much plaque or how much plaque and tangle you have in the brain.
Now, I don’t know how useful that is. We would like it to be useful, but we don’t know whether that makes a difference in terms of your ability to have an impact on your brain health. Eventually, we’d like to develop something like a cholesterol test for the brain. If you go to the doctor, if you’re over, say 40 or 50 years of age, your doctor may get a cholesterol test. If that cholesterol level is high in your blood, the doctor will give you a statin drug to lower your cholesterol, and that will also lower your future risk for a heart attack or stroke.
Well, right now we kind of have the cholesterol test, we just don’t have the statin drug for the brain. So I generally don’t recommend those brain scans unless somebody really wants it, and I think sometimes it will motivate people to work harder on their Alzheimer’s prevention programs.
TS: So when we talk about something like a healthy brain, there’s actually something that you can see from these kinds of scans and say, “Yes, that’s a healthy brain. That brain doesn’t look as”—I mean, it’s not simply something that’s measured by how someone performs on certain tests.
GS: Yes. I think the test is probably even more important because you can maybe see more plaque and tangle in the brain, or you can see less use or uptake of sugar in the brain, and that’s predictive of cognitive decline or risk for Alzheimer’s. But a lot of people compensate, and a lot of people do a lot better on pencil and paper tests for various reasons.
So it’s not any one scan that makes the diagnosis. You really have to look at the whole patient. When people come in and are concerned about their memory complaints, we do a standard medical evaluation, but we also ask people, “Are you exercising? What’s your stress level like? What’s your diet like?” because we want to empower people to do whatever they can to protect their brain health for as long as possible, regardless of how challenged they are when they come into the office.
TS: OK. So we’ve talked a little bit about exercise, and particularly cardiovascular exercise, and stress management, and a brain-healthy diet. But we haven’t said anything yet about brain calisthenics, if you will—crossword puzzles and Sudoku.
GS: Yes. There’s a lot out there in the brain fitness arena. There are many companies that are developing brain games and computer programs. And the evidence is suggestive that it’s brain-protective. For example, if you graduate college or you are engaged in mentally stimulating activities, you have a lower risk for getting Alzheimer’s disease. But the cause-and-effect relationship has not been absolutely pinned down. So we often recommend people remain mentally active and engaged, but you still may have cognitive decline. Is that clear?
TS: I think that is clear. I mean, you used the word “suggestive” in relationship to brain fitness approaches and exercising the brain by doing puzzles. But with these other three factors you were much more definitive.
GS: Well, I think particularly physical exercise—there’s quite a bit of evidence there. And if people do nothing else after they hear me speak or leave my office, I hope they’ll start exercising or continue to exercise. It’s not only great for your heart, but it’s going to be great for your brain.
Even if we don’t have definitive evidence that one strategy is brain-protective or not, we still encourage people to live an engaging and interesting and fulfilling life. So when I talk to people about brain games, I tell them, “Look, train but don’t strain your brain.” So do things that are fun and interesting, but don’t overdo it.
TS: So in terms of aging with a healthy brain, am I missing anything in terms of other key levers or factors?
GS: Well, we talked about physical exercise, mental exercise, memory training, stress management, nutrition—I think in terms of nutrition, it’s important to eat anti-oxidant fruits and vegetables that protect our brain cells from oxidation and wear and tear as we age.
Another area that really cuts across many of the strategies we’re talking about is staying socially engaged. I mean, in a way that’s a form of brain exercise. One study found that conversation is better for your brain health than watching a TV sitcom. And there’s something about having a conversation that forces us to think about a response, it can lower our stress levels. So I often recommend people take walks with friends and talk about their day. It’ll lower their stress level, it will get them some cardiovascular conditioning, and you’ll have that interaction that is a form of brain exercise.
TS: You know, I’m curious, Dr. Small, here as a neuroscientist and researcher, if there’s a way, when you think of the brain, it’s almost like this living, changing organism itself, an organism within our whole body-mind organism of who we are. Meaning, it grows, it changes, it ages. How do you think of the brain in that regard?
GS: I think that’s an apt description, that our brain is really on an equilibrium with our environments. And we stimulate them from moment to moment, certainly they’re aging just like the rest of our bodies are aging, so there are gradual changes. But they’re also quite resilient and responsive. One of the interesting studies we did a few years ago, we called “Your Brain on Google,” and we found that older people had tremendously more active brains when they searched online when they had experience searching. So we can actually train an older brain to search online and you can see significant increases in neuroactivity in a relatively short period of time.
TS: now, I know you’ve done quite a bit of research and consideration of how our engagement with technology is either good for our brain or not good for our brain. And I’m wondering if you can share with us some of your discoveries about that.
GS: Well, I think it’s certainly mixed. When we use the technology, it is a form of brain exercise. And there are technologies I’ve been involved in developing to try to improve memory and cognitive performance by using a computer or a hand-held device or a touch screen. And we’ve shown that there are significant improvements as a result of using these technologies.
But there can be a downside if we overuse the technologies and not use them in a thoughtful way. So we end up at the computer all day and we forget how to have a conversation with someone. We don’t look them in the eye or we don’t notice non-verbal cues as a result of the overuse of some of the new technologies. And I think that’s a major problem.
TS: Do you have any basic guidelines you’d give for healthy brains engaging with technology?
GS: I think it’s important to balance the online time with offline time. Get up, have a conversation, stretch, take a walk. And try to pick and choose how you use the technologies. What’s the most effective method for communication for a particular issue? I mean, I know that a lot of young people will break up with a boyfriend or girlfriend through a text message, which to me seems pretty harsh, but I can understand it, how unpleasant discussions are often easier online than face-to-face.
TS: In terms of simply how our brain may be responding to the time that we spend engaging with technology on the computer versus off, can you tell me anything about that, what your research has shown?
GS: Well, we think that what happens with the brain—it’s relatively straightforward. I mean, our brain neural circuits will strengthen if we spend a lot of time with a particular mental task. Initially, actually, what you see is in a new task there’s not a lot of activity, but when you start understanding how to use the technology or how to solve the problem, there are surges in neural activity. The neural circuits kind of understand how to deal with the situation.
And then when we repeat the activity, you actually see less neural activation, but better performance. So, in a way, our brains get more efficient, just the way we do when we go to the gym. You can lift more weight or run farther expending less energy. This issue is [if you’re] neglecting certain mental tasks, [because] the neural circuits will weaken that control those tasks. So I think that’s a basic principle with our memory classes, our memory programs, cognitive programs, or our Alzheimer’s prevention programs. It’s kind of a balance in different areas of our lives.
TS: Now, this is a question, Dr. Small, that’s close to me personally, which is, what do you have to say to women who are in the middle of their life and are starting to experience that something I’ve heard referred to as menopausal fog, menopausal brain fog?
GS: Yes. I think certainly if you’re going through menopause, check with your doctor if you’re having symptoms—it can be hormonal issues, it can affect memory. And the other thing is to have a positive attitude and realize that you do have some control over these symptoms. People with head trauma, people who are older, people who have a family history of Alzheimer’s, women experiencing menopausal fog, or even younger women experiencing so-called “mommy brain,” there is help. The kinds of strategies that I recommend in my courses, to my patients, to anybody who’ll listen to what I have to say, I think there are general brain health strategies, and general strategies help compensate for whatever cognitive symptom you may be experiencing.
TS: Now, in preparing for this conversation, I noticed that recently you and your life partner wrote a book together called, The Other Side of the Couch: A Psychiatrist Solves His Most Unusual Cases. And you were sort of exposing, if you will, without using any names, some of the unusual encounters you’ve had with clients of yours. And just to begin, I’m curious what inspired you to write such a book.
GS: Well, not only am I a neuroscientist, I’m also a psychiatrist. And what drew me to psychiatry was a fascination with human behavior and the mind. But the problem with psychiatry is that there’s a tremendous stigma. A lot of people are afraid to get help. And so the idea for this book to try to destigmatize what goes on in the mind, and show people what’s going on in the psychiatrist’s mind so they’re not afraid of the process and are more willing to get help. And Gigi and I thought that talking about the most unusual cases would draw people in, because each of them is a medical mystery that was difficult to solve and really teaches us about the human mind and psychiatry.
And the book also shows people the growth of the psychiatrist, because it begins with chronologically from my earliest cases, when I was the most naïve about how to solve these kinds of problems, to someone who’s more experienced. So you see the arch of my career as well.
TS: Are there any stories in the book that have to do with memory loss or challenges that people are having as they age?
GS: There are. There was one story where one of my professors came to me and he was beginning to get Alzheimer’s disease, and how that manifests itself, and how it was very challenging to me because, you know—there’s an old saying, “The doctor who treats himself or someone close to him has a fool for a patient.” Because it’s difficult to help people who you know well. It was kind of an awkward situation for me. I didn’t want to be his doctor, but in a way, he indirectly forced me to help him.
And you see the outcome of that, which was difficult seeing him decline, but also I think helpful in understanding the process and how confusing it can be, especially initially, in recognizing it.
TS: You know, I myself have never known anybody with Alzheimer’s, so my experience is very second-hand, third-hand, and mostly comes, quite honestly, from watching movies that show the decline through the process. But what I’m struck by is how much grief and sadness and loss there is in the people around the person going through an Alzheimer’s decline. And I’m wondering what you might have to offer in that regard to people who perhaps are currently experiencing such grief and loss.
GS: It’s a very difficult situation because as the disease progresses, the person is no longer there mentally. They’re just there physically. And I know that family members just want to have any kind of vestige of that human contact for as long as possible. But it’s heart-wrenching, it’s very sad. We’re seeing it now in my mother-in-law, where she’s in the end stage of Alzheimer’s. And it’s very sad to see this once vibrant, feisty woman just there physically and not there mentally. I know it’s very sad for my wife and my sister-in-law.
TS: You know, as I’m listening to you, I’m feeling your emphasis on how much we can actually take charge of our brain health. And I’m curious how you would address that person who says, you know, “Alzheimer’s [is] in my family, I went through it, it was so painful. Yes, I might be able to do a little bit, but that’s only going make a 10 percent difference or a 20 percent difference. The odds are, it’s still going to strike me and I just, you know, I feel kind of defeated out of the gate. Dr. Small, yes, he’s giving me a great pep talk here, but I don’t buy it. It’s not—these lifestyle factors aren’t influential enough.”
GS: You know, people will argue that, they’ll give up. We get into this in some detail in our new book The Alzheimer’s Prevention Program, how some people say, “Well, you can’t really prevent Alzheimer’s.” But if you look at the scientific evidence, you know that, for example, two of the Alzheimer’s prevention strategies, physical exercise and diet, we know that will prevent diabetes. If you get diabetes, that doubles the risk for Alzheimer’s.
And if you look at the scientific evidence, you can add up the amount of time you might gain as a result of these strategies. And for many people, you might be able to forestall the onset of symptoms by up to four years. That’s a lot of time. That may mean, for many people, never getting the symptoms in their lifetime. So that’s about as close to a cure or prevention that we can get to today, until we find some kind of a curative medical treatment. So I think there is a lot people can do. I think if you don’t give up and you do something, it can make a difference.
We studied identical twins, for example. They have the same genetic predisposition. One twin gets Alzheimer’s and the other one doesn’t, and the big difference? Their lifestyle.
TS: Now, you mentioned, Dr. Small, that potentially something curative could be on the horizon. I’m curious, at your work at UCLA, what kinds of potential curative interventions do you see on the horizon?
GS: Well, you know, there’s a lot of work focusing on clearing up those amyloid plaques in the brain. There’s a very large study that just got started looking at people with a genetic mutation, to see if that will delay the onset of symptoms. I think there are other approaches, [like] anti-inflammatory treatments, such as the work with circumin. So I think there’s a lot of different approaches that are in development right now. I’m not sure what’s going to work, but it’s important to diversify our research portfolio, because it’s hard to say what particular treatment or combination of treatments will make a difference.
In the meantime, there’s a lot we can do. We can get out there and exercise every day, we can eat a healthy diet, we can manage our stress, and learn to compensate for our age-related memory symptoms.
TS: I’m curious, from all the research you’ve done and all the people you’ve worked with, how have your own habits changed over the years? Are there any habits you used to have, perhaps bad habits, that you’re like, “You know, I just can’t do that anymore.” Are there some bad habits that you still engage in?
GS: I’ve gotten much better over the years, I’ve got to tell you. I get some cardiovascular conditioning nearly every day—unless I’m traveling, it might be difficult. I eat a healthy diet as best I can. I do have my cheat eats once in a while, a dessert here or there. But in general, I’m pretty much practicing what I preach in trying to manage my stress well, trying to eat a healthy diet and exercise, and I will use these memory techniques whenever I need to. I’m sorry, what did you say your name was?
TS: [Laughs] That’s great. I remember when I met you at Sounds True and I made some kind of joke where I said, “What? I don’t get that.” And you said, “Yes, that’s the same memory joke that I hear all that time.”
GS: I’ve been hearing that for years.
TS: I’ve been speaking to, what’s his name? Oh, Dr. Gary Small. He has created, with Sounds True, two very powerful programs. One he has co-created with Dr. Andrew Weil, and it’s called The Healthy Brain, an interactive learning kit which features clinically proved tools to boost your memory, sharpen your mind, and keep your brain young. He’s also created a three-session audio series called Improve Your Memory Now. It’s a series that works on improving your recall and brain power with clinically proven exercises.
Dr. Small, thanks for being with us on Insights at the Edge.
GS: Thank you, Tami.
TS: SoundsTrue.com. Many voices, one journey. Thanks for listening.